LaTeX Help
What is TeX??
$\TeX$ (pronounced "tech"), and $\LaTeX$ (pronounced "lay-tech"), are typesetting systems which are especially suited to mathematical language. They require memorizing (or looking up) "commands" for creating certain kinds of characters, but the output is much better than Equation Editor!

Some Examples

$\TeX$ is fairly intuitive, and using it requires you to know a few basic commands. Here are some examples of how it's done. In general you write out [[$...$]], where "..." is the formula you wish to put on the page. If there's something you can't figure out how to typeset, post a comment at the bottom of the page.

Type Result Explanation
[[$f(x)$]] $f(x)$
[[$\langle \vec{x},\vec{y}\rangle$]] $\langle \vec{x},\vec{y}\rangle$ The \vec{x} command places a vector over the character x
[[$f'(x)=\lim_{h\to 0} \frac{f(x+h)-f(x)}{h}$]] $f'(x)=\lim_{h\to 0} \frac{f(x+h)-f(x)}{h}$ The \frac{num}{denom} produces a fraction $\frac{num}{denom}$. An arrow $\to$ is produced using \to. For the left arrow $\leftarrow$, use \leftarrow.
[[$\int_{x=0}^5 \frac{\cos(x)}{x^2-1}dx$]] $\int_{x=0}^5 \frac{\cos(x)}{x^2-1}dx$ The limits of integration are typeset as a subscript and a superscript. To achieve a summation $\sum_{n=0}^\infty$, use [[$\sum_{n=0}^\infty$]].
[[$\sum_n a_n x^n$]] $\sum_n a_n x^n$ Use an underscore _ for subscript and a caret ^ for superscript.
for all [[$x\in\mathbb{Z}$]] for all $x\in\mathbb{Z}$ Use \in for $\in$, and use \mathbb for the "blackboard bold" font.
[[$\{a\in\mathbb{Q}:a^2\leq 2\}$]] $\{a\in\mathbb{Q}:a^2\leq 2\}$ Braces are produced in TeX by preceding them with a backslash: \{ and \}

Additional Tips

  • Greek letters are typeset using "\name": for example, \theta produces $\theta$.

"Mini" Examples

The following table shows more examples of commands which may be useful and their output.

Command Result Command Result Command Result Command Result
\mathbb{Z} $\mathbb{Z}$ \mathbb{Q} $\mathbb{Q}$ \mathbb{N} $\mathbb{N}$ \mathbb{R} $\mathbb{R}$
\vec{x} $\vec{x}$ \mathbf{x} $\mathbf{x}$ \mathsf{x} $\mathsf{x}$ \mathcal{X} $\mathcal{X}$
x_n $x_n$ x^n $x^n$ \frac{x}{y} $\frac{x}{y}$ \binom{x}{y} $\binom{x}{y}$
\sqrt{x} $\sqrt{x}$ \sqrt[3]{x} $\sqrt[3]{x}$ \sqrt[n]{x} $\sqrt[n]{x}$
\in $\in$ \forall $\forall$ \exists $\exists$ \nexists $\nexists$
\cup $\cup$ \cap $\cap$ \subset $\subset$ \supset $\supset$
\to $\to$ \leftarrow $\leftarrow$ \Rightarrow $\Rightarrow$ \Leftarrow $\Leftarrow$
\longrightarrow $\longrightarrow$ \longleftarrow $\longleftarrow$ \Leftrightarrow $\Leftrightarrow$ \Longleftrightarrow $\Longleftrightarrow$
\neq $\neq$ \geq $\geq$ \leq $\leq$ \approx $\approx$
\langle $\langle$ \rangle $\rangle$ |\vec{x}| $|\vec{x}|$ | |\vec{x}| | $| |\vec{x}| |$
\{a\} $\{a\}$ a\cdot b $a\cdot b$ (x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n) $(x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n)$ \cdots $\cdots$
\infty $\infty$ \overset{\circ}{S} $\overset{\circ}{S}$ \overline{S} $\overline{S}$

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